Research

This section is made available to provide information relative to ongoing and anticipated projects sponsored by the Justice Academy. We encourage your support and participation of the ongoing initiatives and we would be delighted to hear from you regarding any suggestions you might have concerning innovative programs that you believe could be supported by the Justice Academy.

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Hostage Survival Probability Model
The Justice Academy (justiceacademy.org) and the National Tactical Officers Association (ntoa.org) have joined forces to coordinate and conduct a national study regarding hostage survival rates in order to determine those contributive factors associated with such special operations situations. The Hostage Survival Probability Model project endeavored to isolate, quantify, and prioritize discriminant variables that influence the outcome of such situations and then assemble these contributive factors into primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of influence in order to create a survivability equation that can be applied to future hostage situations. Predicated on the findings of the national study of past cases that have occurred, it was the goal of the research team to use the collected information to create a predictive algorithm that can be used by hostage negotiators and special operations units to minimize the risk factors associated with direct enforcement actions and enhance the likelihood of a positive outcome of the hostage situation, based on historical analysis. Please contact Judge Hal Campbell, Ph.D. at hal.campbell@justiceacademy.org or Commander Sid Heal at SHeal@FieldCommandLLC.com for further details about the study. The links below represent the documents associated with this research endeavor, along with the HSPM Survey Findings and Predictive Equation Spreadsheet.


HSPM – Results and Summary Report
HSPM – Hostage Survival Probability Calculator
HSPM – Overview of the Research
HSPM – Hypothesized Variable Array
HSPM – Variables Quantification Strategy
HSPM – Survey Guide and Instructions
HSPM – Survey Form
Deschutes County SWAT – Briefing Guide
TITAN Initiative
Justice Academy Journal Article of the Results

Tactical Incident Team Advisory Network – TITAN
The Justice Academy is pleased to announce the creation of the Tactical Incident Team Advisory Network. The purpose of the program is to establish a real-time video network of experienced professionals who can serve to provide advice and support to departments and agencies that find themselves in unfamiliar tactical situations such as; hostage negotiations, barricaded suspect incidents, terrorist threat incidents, and other similar high risk scenarios. The program uses high speed tactical multipoint video conferencing to link any agency in the nation that is encountering such challenge with a team of highly experienced tactical officers, combat medicine experts, hostage negotiators, and command level personnel who can provide advice and guidance during such situations. The TITAN project will utilize ooVoo.com software, which affords every agency in the nation with a free high-speed multi-point video communications network capability that can be used on iPhones, Androids, iPads, or Mac and Windows based laptop computers to communicate instantly with multiple TITAN Team members. Departments interested is taking advantage of this opportunity should contact either Judge Hal Campbell, Ph.D. at director@justiceacademy.org or Commander Sid Heal, LASD Special Enforcement Bureau (Retired) at SHeal@FieldCommandLLC.com.

TITAN Information Flier

eLearning Courseware Development Service
The Justice Academy is pleased to announce a new service program designed to support small and medium sized justice agencies with the development of high-end training classes, entitled the eLearning Courseware Development Service. The ECDS program assists police, prosecution, and judicial agencies with the development of eLearning courseware that is used for asynchronous training and is FREE to participating agencies. Under the terms of the program,,agencies that wish to use eLearning in support of training, but which do not have ready access to experts in this area, may request support from JusticeAcademy.org. Our staff will then coordinate with the agency’s designated departmental training representative to collect and assemble pertinent training materials for inclusion within the course and host the class at no cost. Using Moodle LMS, under Justice Academy.org’s eCampus server, the classes that are developed under this program can be delivered locally, regionally, and nationally, depending upon the department’s targeted audience. Both open and confidential training programs can be supported by this service. If you have an interest in finding out more about this program, please direct your inquiry to director@justiceacademy.org. Please include a brief descriptive narrative of your goals and objectives.

Law School Video Lecture Library Initiative
JusticeAcademy.org is pleased to announce the creation of a new national initiative designed to broaden access by the law and justice profession to training and educational assets prepared by various law schools located throughout the country. As part of the initiative, Justice Academy staff are currently coordinating with participating law school faculty and administrators who have expressed an interest in the project to record and post selected lectures dealing with criminal law, criminal procedure, evidence, civil litigation, trial advocacy, and other pertinent subjects for review by the national audience of law and criminal justice practitioners. The intent of the program is to provide a free source of quality lectures and information created by outstanding institutions that teach within these disciplines for use as remedial training, recurring training, and professional development by police sheriffs, prosecutors, public defenders, and judges. If you have an interest in participating in this exciting initiative, please contact me at director@justiceacademy.org for more information.

Police Academy Video Lecture Library Initiative
The Justice Academy is pleased to announce our most recent national initiative and we are extending an invitation to every police chief, sheriff, and department executive in the nation to consider the merits of participation in this most relevant and impactful project. The Police Academy Video Lecture Library Initiative is designed specifically to support law enforcement agencies, throughout the nation, by encouraging police organizations that operate police academies to capture and record lectures presented by their faculty during the normal course of instruction, and then assembling these training assets within an aggregate repository that is made available to all departments throughout the nation, at no charge. Needless to say, there are innumerable benefits associated with this concept, and very few drawbacks. Several agencies have already expressed interest in participating and I would encourage each and every one of you who read this announcement to consider becoming involved, at some level, for the greater good of the profession. Imagine the impact it would have across the country if any officer, anywhere in the nation, could instantly access a lecture that they needed that helped them perform their job better, more effectively, and more professionally. If you have an interest in participating in this initiative, please contact me at director@justiceacademy.org.

National Institute for Law and Justice Education Project
The National Institute for Law and Justice Education project (nilj.org) sponsored by the Accrediting Commission for Law and Justice Education (aclje.org) and The Justice Academy has recently concluded a four year long examination of best and worst practices in these related academic disciplines, combined with an analysis of the ever changing needs of the profession. This endeavor involved a cross section of participants from throughout the professions, as well as representatives of the academic community, and has culminated in the creation of a model curriculum and pedagogical strategy for law and justice education, designed specifically to meet the existing and expressed future needs of the professions, as articulated. The Institute project not only addressed the importance of adaptive curricula that keeps pace with the ever changing demands of the profession and specialization requirements, but also focused on a review of the business strategies used by higher education including; cost-effectiveness and benefit, program pricing and fair market value of education, the adoption of public domain Learning Management System architecture to assure independence away from commercial providers and to lessen reliance and vulnerability to outside influences, admissions standards and testing requirements, hiring requirements for faculty, the autonomy and compensation standards for faculty who develop and deliver courses, and the use of client side system architecture as opposed to server-side architectures to improve system reliability. Additionally the project reviewed current practices and as a result of the findings, prescribed mandated requirements for each class within the curriculum to contain fully narrated lectures, the use of multi-point video conference meetings for each class throughout the term, the use of custom published text books to assure academic freedom and relevance of the topics being delivered, the requirement for aggregated term papers in all classes to improve student writing and research skills, critical thinking based unit assignments to foster enhanced student comprehension and improve decision making skills, and the elimination of blog based discussions as an instruction and performance mechanism. The National Institute for Law and Justice Education was envisaged and created by the Accrediting Commission in recognition of specific needs of the profession to have a formalized academy for the development of leaders who were selected and trained with this specific goal in mind. It was also formulated based on the recognition of some significant failures by the justice profession and the collegiate community, to adequately prepare people for positions of leadership. Our profession is, for the most part, closely predicated upon a military model of hierarchical organization and command and control. The major difference between the justice system and the military however, is that the military recognized early on that officers possess a different set of qualities than supervisors or managers. Some of these qualities are inherent, others cultivated through experience, and still others imparted through intense training and education. Conversely, the justice profession through its practices, has been forced to select future leaders from the pool of existing supervisors and managers within the ranks, and trust that additional training will be sufficient to help them evolve into a leader. As we all recognize, this approach does not always work out well. The next step in the Institute project will be to approach regionally accredited colleges and universities throughout the nation and exemplary justice agencies to explore the viability of a network affiliate program. This phase of the project is expected to take several years, culminating in each participating institution offering a portion of the overall curricula, in accordance with the standards defined and prescribed. Please visit www.nilj.org for further information about this project.

Mandatory Text Blocking APP For Drivers
Traffic collisions caused by texting result in nearly 1.6 million accidents every year and 500,000 preventable injuries and deaths. Since there are free APPS in existence that can block all texts on both Androids and iPhones, and which essentially disable this feature from everyone’s cell phone while driving, and since people seem either unable or unwilling to stop such foolish behavior, why is it that we as a profession have not yet taken positive action to influence new legislation and corporate action to make this feature mandatory in all states, for all drivers? The Justice Academy is sponsoring a new initiative designed specifically to raise awareness of this (resolvable) problem and to influence a national level debate concerning the merits of new legislation designed to make mandatory the use of blocking technology. All cell phone carriers have the ability to “push” software updates to every type of cell phone in use. Insurance companies can also provide assistance by requiring the adoption of such technologies, as a condition of policy issuance, which means with a simple new requirement adopted by every state legislature mandating the use of such blocking software, and a little cooperation from cell phone carriers and the insurance industry, the law and justice profession can (essentially) take positive action to eliminate half a million deaths and serious injuries every year that are caused by people texting while they are driving. Isn’t it time we stopped talking about this issue and actually did something to eliminate it. This is an easy problem to solve (technologically speaking) and yet we haven’t resolved it. We encourage your active involvement in this initiative and invite you to take action in your jurisdiction to raise awareness that leads to a solution. If you have an interest is becoming part of this initiative, please email the Executive Director at director@justiceacademy.org

Please Read Mashable’s Article for Specific Software Solutions That Are Available Today

Last Chance Deferred Sentencing Program
The Last Chance Deferred Sentencing Program deals with a seldom invoked judicial option, which is specifically designed to enhance the prerogatives of the lower courts in extending their reach beyond the maximum allowable sentence under the law and to provide a mechanism whereby the court can impose stringent sentencing conditions that address the multivariate nature of an offender’s criminality. The philosophy behind the use of deferred imposition of sentence, along with a multivariate sentencing and release strategy seeks to force behavior modification and treatment as part of the sentencing conditions that are invoked by the court. Last Chance sends a clear message to a potentially salvageable offender and affords a reasoned program of addressing an offender’s behavior to eliminate certain factors that result in temptations and choices that have brought the accused to the attention of the justice system. This project holds tremendous nationwide potential as a community based sentencing alternative to demonstrate compassionate justice, but with teeth. The objective of the Last Chance program is to raise awareness of the potential of applying sentencing practices that incorporate a multivariate strategy that seeks to alter offender behavior by removing or reducing causal factors associated with past incidents of criminality and to create a systemic sentencing program that enlists the concurrence, support, and involvement of all facets of the justice system. Included below are a preliminary multivariate criminality array that identifies major, minor, and subtle level variables, along with a short lecture regarding the Last Chance program. If you have an interest in participating in this study and contributing your time and energy to endeavor, please contact Judge Hal Campbell, Ph.D. at director@justiceacademy.org.

Last Chance Program – Lecture
Multivariate Criminality Array – Draft
Last Chance Program – Program Strategy Notes

School Violence Predictive Model
The Justice Academy (justiceacademy.org) is pleased to announce a new research endeavor designed to facilitate a national level inquiry into the contributive factors associated with school violence. The aim of the project is to produce a risk assessment tool that can serve as a screening mechanism that seeks to provide an empirically based predictive risk assessment equation in order to anticipate the propensity of violence posed by individuals. The School Violence Predictive Model project will endeavor to isolate, quantify, and prioritize discriminant variables that perpetuate such situations and then assemble the contributive factors into primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of influence in order to create a predictive equation that can be used to determine the likelihood of individual risk to the campus community. Predicated on the findings of the national study of past cases that have occurred, it is the goal of the research team to use the collected information to create a predictive algorithm that can be employed by campus administrators in order to assess the risk of violence that each student presents campus community as well as providing a means of isolating controllable variables that minimize the risk factors associated with events proactively, based on historical analysis. As the study progresses the research team will be issuing updates and information that will allow agencies to participate in the data collection phase of the project and upon completion of the research project a final report will be issued to every agency in the country, along with instructions regarding how to access the School Violence Predictive Model. Please contact Dr. Rick Walker, Project Director at rick.walker@aclje.org if you have an interest in finding out more about this research project.

SVPM – Hypothesized Variable Array

The Reserve Officer’s Outreach Program–Educational Resource Service
The Justice Academy is pleased to announce the creation of a new educational resource support program that seeks to integrate the valuable and diverse contributions of the reserve corps of many police and sheriff’s departments throughout the nation into a shared repository that can be accessed on a national level. The TROOPERS program is designed specifically to capture, correlate, and distribute exemplary training materials that are produced by law enforcement reserve units, in order to advance the level of excellence nationwide by this most important component of our profession. Reserve officers typically possess decades of experience, as well as significant knowledge in applying a variety of highly technical specializations across all facets of the profession. The TROOPERS program is focused on providing courseware development support to agency reserve members who have a desire to share their knowledge and understanding of the profession with other reserve officers throughout the nation by creating and delivering online learning assets. If you have an interest in participating in the TROOPERS program, please contact the Justice Academy at director@justiceacademy.org.

Law and Justice Chaplains Counseling Service
The Justice Academy is pleased to announce a new sponsored program entitled the Law and Justice Chaplains Counseling Service. This new service program will be made available in the coming months to all members of the law and justice professions, no matter their geographic location. The program endeavors to bring together volunteer chaplains, counselors, and ministers from throughout the nation to provide spiritual support, crisis intervention, and pastoral counseling to police officers, prosecutors, and judges in all jurisdictions of the country. There are times when it’s neither convenient nor appropriate to seek support and assistance from within the department, and there are other times when such support simply isn’t available, but that should never be a barrier to compassionate outreach. The mission of the Chaplains Counseling Service is to assemble of roster of volunteer chaplains and counselors who can field “calls for spiritual service” from officers and other justice professionals from throughout the nation who feel the need to talk about issues and seek objective guidance and counseling regarding sensitive matters. This Justice Academy program is being led by Pastor Ed Vainio and we invite participation by all licensed and ordained ministers, counselors, and crisis intervention professionals. To be added to the list of volunteer chaplains or to find out more about this service program, please contact Pastor Vainio at chaplain@justiceacademy.org.

College Intern Experiential Learning Program
The Justice Academy is pleased to announce its Fall 2013 Criminal Justice Student Internship program. This program is designed to provide collegiate undergraduate students with an opportunity to gain experiential learning credit while serving as support staff for the Justice Academy and participating in the eCampus, iShare, and Video catalog programs.. To qualify, students must be currently enrolled in a criminal justice degree program and be willing to devote 3-5 hours per week in support of the creation and production of training materials used by law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and the courts. Students desiring to participate in this national program should contact the Justice Academy Coordinator at director@justiceacademy.org for further information about the program. This program is not a compensated internship (yet), however it is an excellent opportunity for aspiring criminal justice professionals to showcase their talents, while acquiring real world experience in the development and production of law enforcement training programs. Upon completion of the term, letters of achievement will be distributed validating each student’s participation in the program, along with credit endorsements prescribed by the sponsoring college or university. Faculty adviser approval is required in writing, prior to acceptance within the Justice Academy Internship program.

Directed Patrol and Strategic Enforcement Effectiveness Project
The Justice Academy is pleased to announce that it will be coordinating an international research opportunity for those agencies and research professionals interested in participating, beginning in January 2014. The research project involves the subject of Directed Patrol and Targeted Enforcement Effectiveness and Efficiency Determination. The goal of this endeavor is to support departmental implementation of effectiveness and efficiency measures as a standard operating procedure for targeted enforcement and directed patrol operations. Most certainly we expect to see variations in the levels of effectiveness and efficiency derived for agencies participating in the study but then again, some agencies wrestle with greater challenges than others. The basic research design strategy (as presently envisaged but which will certainly morph as the project unfolds) centers on using time-series analysis to forecast anticipated crime rates, for specified periods of time using historical data, within specific crime categories (both violent or property offenses), within specific sub-jurisdictional regions, followed by a concomitant change in enforcement strategy within the targeted region with the goal of lessening the projected crime frequency for the time period. The empirical design of this research project is structured to provide a comparative analysis of actual crime frequencies that occur as a result of the directed patrol operation, against projected crime frequencies had no change in enforcement been implemented, in order to determine the “number of crimes prevented” from occurring during the period, based on a change in enforcement tempo, visibility of patrol assets, community involvement, reallocation of manpower allocation, and other influential factors associated with directed patrol operations. Agencies and researchers interested in finding out more about the research project and discussing their participation in this study may contact me at director@justiceacademy.org.

Law Enforcement Executive Exchange Program – LEEEP
The Justice Academy is pleased to announce the creation of a newly established program entitled the Law Enforcement Executive Exchange Program, which is scheduled to commence in August 2014. The LEEEP project was created in response to the ongoing challenges faced by the law enforcement community in maximizing leadership intensity, sustaining managerial operations tempo, and fostering a broadened sense of vision among command level personnel as they progress through the later phases of their careers. The LEEEP project is similar in structure to the Fulbright Exchange Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, in that it creates a mechanism by which police and sheriff’s departments throughout the nation, as well as members of the profession, can connect with other executive leaders to explore the viability of duty exchanges between command level personnel, for a one year period. Under the conditions of the program, candidates must seek departmental approval for participation in the exchange program prior to submitting their request to the Justice Academy LEEEP coordinator, along with a statement of responsibilities for the position they currently occupy, and an agreement to a one year commitment to serve, if selected for participation within the program. Based on their expression of interest in participating in the program, candidates are provided with a list of potential participants in geographic areas identified as desirable by the applicant, so they can contact and discuss the viability of an exchange. Essentially, LEEEP participants trade lives for a one year period including their jobs, homes, locations, and responsibilities. All costs associated with LEEEP participation are born by those involved in the program, and those agencies participating in the exchange. For further information concerning this program, please email director@justiceacademy.org. Isn’t it about time that we started looking out for each other and do something progressive to extend the careers and provide incentives to those who have devoted their lives to the service of the community.

Accrediting Commission for Law and Justice Education